Ships & Boats

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Ships & Boats

Post Number:#1  Postby mark » Fri Aug 14, 2015 6:48 pm

Norse Ship.png


Long sleek shapes, high dragon headed prows and single square rigged sails, Norse longships are fearfully watched for from every coast, a portent of doom for many. However, not all Viking vessels are warships. The majority are traders or transports used for exploration, merchant voyages or colonisation.

The identifying features of a Norse vessel are a clinker built hull with overlapping strakes, which has a shallow keel so it can be beached safely. The hull has a pointed prow and stern, incorporating a side mounted rudder and a single mast from which a crossbeam supports a single rectangular sail. This simple design is both relatively easy to construct and fast in the water. Its mode of propulsion is flexible, taking advantage of the wind where possible but can run out oars and travel by rowing when necessary. This enables it to cross open seas, yet still be able to penetrate inland following rivers upstream.

This adaptability and swiftness is the reason the Northmen have ranged so far from their Scandinavian homes, excelling as traders and pirates. To reflect their somewhat specialised designs, the following ships have been split in two categories, warships and merchantmen

lapstrake.jpg

King Olaf Tryggvason’s Saga wrote:Soon after the king convoked a Thing in the town, and proclaimed to all the public, that in summer would go abroad upon an expedition out of the country, and would raise both ships and men from every district; and at the same time fixed how many ships would have from the whole Throndhjem fjord. Then he sent his message-token south and north, both along the sea-coast and up in the interior of the country, to let an army be gathered.

The king ordered the Long Serpent to be put into the water, along with all his other ships both small and great. He himself steered the Long Serpent. When the crews were taken out for the ships, they were so carefully selected that no man on board the Long Serpent was older than sixty or younger than twenty years, and all were men distinguished for strength and courage. Those who were Olaf’s bodyguard were in particular chosen men, both of the natives and of foreigners, and the boldest and strongest.


Vessel Types.png


CREW
CREW: A vessel can have as many or few passengers & crew as desired, up to a theoretical maximum of 1 man per 1m3 of capacity. This would be ill advised as it will leave no space for tools, supplies, cargo, passengers & provisions, and very little space to fight! There are three specific functions for crewmen; as rowers, sailors and steersmen.

  • Steersman: 1 per ship, a ship without a steersman will have huge control difficulty or maybe entirely unable to operate.
  • Rowers: Each pair of rowers will increase the speed of the ship slightly, and each pair of oars can have up to two rowers.
  • Sailors: Vessels require an optimal 1-6 men depending on size. Having more than this number offers no benefit, but less will decrease sailing performance.
  • Passengers: Anybody travelling on a vessel not working, including marines.

Physical exertion equates to faster rowing:-
  • Light x1
  • Medium x3
  • Strenuous x5

The usual skill required for the crew is Boating for vessels up to size S, and Seamanship for size M and larger. Boating may be substituted for Seamanship at Hard difficulty, if necessary. In cases where the crew of small vessels, like the byrding, are operating out to sea and away from the coast they will require the Seamanship skill.

Each crewman has only enough space for his personal effects including his weapons and a shield plus one of either a backpack, small chest or small sack. Any additional belongings will take up precious cargo space.

Additional Characteristics
LENGTH: The distance from bow to stern, excluding the prow(s).

BEAM: The widest part of a ship – usually in the middle. Ships equipped with oars will have the beam of the ship increased when the oars are employed. The inclusion of oars is considered to increase a ship’s beam to half again its original rating.


FREEBOARD: The minimum height between the ship’s gunwale and the waterline. Comparing two ships’ freeboards can help give the vertical distance that an Adventurer needs to achieve when jumping from one to the other.

DRAFT: The depth of water needed for the ship to manoeuvre effectively and avoid running aground. This is the distance between the ship’s keel and the waterline.

BENCHES: This number represents the seating space for rowing-crew between pairs of oars. On warships it is most likely fixed benches, and on trade ships it is removable bench-like objects (planks, barrels, chests etc). These 'benches' can accommodate one, two, three or four rowers depending on the beam of the vessel and her full crew capacity. Crew must be distributed evenly to achieve the highest rowing rates. The steersman usually has a fixed bench space at the aft of the vessel for controlling the steering oar.

DISPLACEMENT: The mass of salt water displaced by the hull of the ship. Generally only useful in calculating if the ship is overloaded with very heavy cargo.

CAPACITY: This indicates the cargo capacity of the ship in cubic metres with a full crew. This space is in addition to the weight of the ship’s rigging, oars, benches, ballast stones, anchor, crew (including personal effects), and so forth. Sacrificing crew members gains an extra 0.5m3 of cargo space per crewman.

SEAWORTHINESS: The ability of the ship to stand up to the rigours of sailing expressed as hit points. All ships must undergo frequent maintenance in order to prevent their Seaworthiness rating from deteriorating.
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#2  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 2:27 pm

Busse.gif

Drakkar

The drakkar is the largest class of longship with a massive capacity for crew or cargo. They are principally designed for warfare to give advantage in battle against other smaller ships due to their massive size, where with a huge crew, massive sail and thirty pairs of oars they have the best turn of speed of any ship. They are therefore regarded as the greatest of warships. A drakkar typically has about thirty pairs of oars, some one hundred and twenty to thirty crew, and a total length of around forty meters. These ships are not only very fast, but despite their size they are capable of operating in shallow waters.




Length: 40m
Beam: 6m
Freeboard: 1.5m
Draft: 1m
Max. Hull Speed: 31.8kmh
Benches: 30 + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 87 tonnes
Total Capacity:151m3
ENC: 3,475
SIZ: 1,159
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#3  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 2:37 pm

Skeide.jpg

Skeið

The skeið is the second largest type of longship, typically equipped with around twenty pairs of oars and a crew compliment of up to eighty to ninety men. The principal difference between the drakkar and the skeið is length, however, both ships share a similar proportion of length to beam. Skeið's are one of the fastest class of ship, and they can operate in fairly shallow waters.




Length: 30m
Beam: 4.5m
Freeboard: 1m
Draft: 1m
Max. Hull Speed: 27.6kmh
Benches: 20 + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 50 tonnes
Capacity: 90m3
ENC: 2,125
SIZ: 709
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#4  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 2:46 pm

Snekkja.jpg

Snekkja

The snekkja is a very similar style, except shorter, longship to the drakkar and skeið. She is well suited to be used for both at war and for travels. However, the snekkja is much more focused as a fast crew carrier than a dedicated warship, as such she is highly suited to the role of patrolling and raiding. Snekkja have a more modest draft than the more prestigious classes of longships. A snekkja is quite as fast as a skeið or a drakkar, but of all ship types they can operate in the most shallow water.



Length: 18m
Beam: 2.7m
Freeboard: 1m
Draft: 0.5m
Max. Hull Speed: 21.4kmh
Benches: 10 + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 23 tonnes
Total Capacity: 41m3
ENC: 1,075
SIZ: 359
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#5  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 2:57 pm

karvi.jpg

Karvi

While longer than a snjekka, a karvi is somewhat shorter and than the true longships. Usually they are usually equipped with around fourteen pairs of oars and can comfortably have a crew of up to sixty if desired. They are a very versatile, general purpose ship, and are used both as merchant vessels and as warships. The karvi's usually has a level deck without fixed benches for the rowers, instead the crew instead sit on chests strapped to the deck during rowing and they can be stowed away when the karvi is under sail. karvi's are not quite as sleek as true warships, and tend to have less oars, so they have less potential speed when rowed. However, they have a decent amount of sailcloth which makes them slightly faster than a snekkja in a good wind. They can operate in shallow waters, but not as shallow as a snekkja.



Length: 25m
Beam: 5m
Freeboard: 1m
Draft: 1m
Max. Hull Speed: 25kmh
Benches: none + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 46 tonnes
Total Capacity: 81m3
ENC: 1,525
SIZ: 509
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#6  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 3:16 pm

knorr under sail.jpg

Knórr

The knórr isan ocean-going cargo ship with a length of up around sixteen metres, designed for a small crew to maximise space for cargo. They have a relatively wide hull compared to larger ships, but with far fewer pairs of oars for her length than longships. Due to this, in a rowing race they will never compete effectively against the larger ships. The oars are usually placed to leave plenty of space midships for cargo. The knórr is designed for large loading capacity and competent sailing abilities offshore. Despite being focused towards merchant shipping, knórr's are occasionally used as warships. Typically, knórr's have a fairly high gunwale which helped to make her seaworthy even in rougher waters and may also be a defensive aid in maritime combat. This popular style of ship is used throughout the Baltic, Scandinavia and widely across Europe,and she can operate in shallow waters.



Length: 16m
Beam: 4.5m
Freeboard: 1m
Draft: 1m
Max. Hull Speed: 20.4kmh
Benches: none + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 26 tonnes
Total Capacity: 45m3
ENC: 1,125
SIZ: 375
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#7  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 4:46 pm

Byrding.jpg

Byrding

The byrding is a smaller vessel primarily used as domestic coastal freight carriers and fishing vessels. While they are able to cross great distances out to sea, the vessel is not well suited to the task and has limited range and resilience. They are considerably smaller than the knórr, with a typically very small crew. In the navies of the great powers they are often used for ferrying supplies to the crews of the larger ships. They are nearly as fast as a knórr under sail, and probably faster when rowed, but nowhere near as fast as the large warships.

Length: 11m
Beam: 2.5m
Freeboard: 0.5m
Draft: 0.5m
Max. Hull Speed: 16.7kmh
Benches: 4 + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 13 tonnes
Total Capacity: 23m3
ENC: 300
SIZ: 100

Byrding.png
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#8  Postby mark » Tue Aug 18, 2015 4:49 pm

faering.jpg

Feræringr

A feræringr is a small, open boat with two pairs of oars. Feræringr are clinker-built, with planks overlapped and riveted together to form the hull. Feræringr usually carries a small square sail in addition to oars and a side-mounted rudder-oar (steering-oar). They are mostly used for river and coastal navigation in calm seas, and very heavily as small fishing vessels. If nothing else was carried, you could just about squeeze in six men on board a feræringr. Feræringr can operate in very shallow waters.



Length: 4m
Beam: 1.5m
Freeboard: 0.5m
Draft: 0.5m
Max. Hull Speed: 10kmh
Benches: 2 + steersman
Displacement (salt water): 3 tonnes
Total Capacity: 6m3
ENC: 150
SIZ: 50
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#9  Postby mark » Wed Aug 10, 2016 11:49 am

large raft.jpg

Langraptrskip [Long Log-Boat or Large Raft]

A langraptrskip is a very simple, large, log 'boat' with no gunwales. Made simply by lashing and nailing together logs they are capable of carrying small loads along a river or a sea coast. Due to their size and simple construction they are remarkably strong compared to some small boats, and thus they could even attempt a sea crossing in calmer winds, but they're rarely ever designed for this as the crew and cargo are very exposed. Often the crew put up a tent-like structure on the deck, but this offers very limited shelter. Most langraptrskip have a mast and a sail, although they tend to be quite ponderous compared to other vessels. Langraptrskip are popular as river and coastal utility vessels, especially among small fishing crews as they're cheap and easy to maintain.




Length: 12m
Beam: 5m
Freeboard: 0m
Draft: 0.2m
Max. Hull Speed: 5.4kmh
Benches: none
Displacement (salt water): 14 tonnes
Total Capacity: 20m3
ENC: 260
SIZ: 87
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#10  Postby mark » Wed Aug 10, 2016 12:16 pm

Log Raft.jpg

Raptrskip [Log-Boat or Raft]

A raptrskip is a very simple, small, open topped log utility 'boat' with no gunwales. Made simply by lashing and nailing together logs they are intended as very cheap river transport or fishing vessels. They could theoretically attempt a sea crossing in calmer winds, but they were never designed for this or even coastal waters. Raptrskip are generally very easy to both build and maintain. Some raptrskip may have a small mast and sail, but they are the slowest of all vessels under sail. There could be up to three rowers (including the steersman), leaving no room to carry additional cargo, but by reducing the crew some very small cargo could potentially be carried.




Length: 3m
Beam: 2m
Freeboard: 0m
Draft: 0.2m
Max. Hull Speed: 2.9kmh
Benches: none
Displacement (salt water): 1 tonne
Total Capacity: 0m3+2m3 = 2m3
ENC: 40
SIZ: 14

Raptrskip.PNG
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#11  Postby mark » Wed Aug 10, 2016 10:30 pm

Vikingr Vessels.png
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Re: Ships & Boats

Post Number:#12  Postby mark » Wed Aug 29, 2018 12:17 pm

Watch on youtube.com
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